Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country on the continent of Europe

Brief History

The area that is now Bosnia and Herzegovina used to be a part of the Roman Empire. The Romans occupied this area until the 6th century when it was conquered by the Byzantine Empire. After this, the area was a part of Hungary, and then an independent Christian state for about 260 years. Then what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina was conquered by the Ottoman Turks. They ruled Bosnia until the late 1800s, when it became a part of Austria-Hungary. After World War I, Bosnia became a part of Yugoslavia. In 1942, Nazi Germany invaded Yugoslavia, and Bosnia was made a part of Nazi-controlled Croatia. Then after World War II, Bosnia and Herzegovina was reunited with Yugoslavia, this time under communist rule. The leader during this time was Josip Bro Tito. This was a terrible time for the country, and different ethnic groups in Yugoslavia were at war with each other. The people of Bosnia and Herzegovina demanded recognition from the European Union and in 1992, the president Alija Izetbegovic declared the country’s independence. Although Bosnia and Herzegovina is one country, it is also two regions, with borders that were never defined.

National Flag

The flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of a blue background, a large yellow triangle, and nine diagonal stars. These stars represent Europe, and to imply that these starts are infinite, the top and bottom ones are cut off. The triangle represents the simplified shape of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The colors, yellow, white, and blue are often associated with peace and neutrality.


Bosnia and Herzegovina is located in southeast Europe. Its borders are Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro. It is also bordered by the Adriatic sea to the southwest, along a narrow extension of the country. Bosnia and Herzegovina is a mountainous country, with the Dinaric alps being a major part of the landscape.

World Land Mass Ranking: 128th
Highest Mountain: Volujak, 7,592 ft (2,314 meters)
Longest River: Sava, 615 miles

Main Languages

Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian

Bosnia and Herzegovina Population: 3.3 million (as of 2018)
Capital City: Sarajevo
Capital City Population: 343,089 (as of 2020)


The climate of Bosnia and Herzegovina varies from area to area. Along the small stretch of the Adriatic sea, the climate is considered to be Mediterranean. In the hilly and mountainous regions of the country, it is quite cold, windy, and cloudy. The northern plains have a continental climate, with cold winters and hot summers.

Key People

  • Cuisine

    The cuisine of Bosnia and Herzegovina is very diverse, a combination of Mediterranean, Croatian, Turkish, Russian, and Greek styles. Many various spices are used in the cuisine, but in moderate quantities. The most common meats in Bosnia and Herzegovina are beef, lamb, and poultry. Cheese and coffee are both very common and popular as well. The national dish of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Cevapi, which is a sausage made from beef or lamb served with pita bread and raw onions. Other popular dishes include Burek (phyllo dough filled with meat, cheese, sometimes meat and apples), Klepe (a dumpling filled with either beef, lamb or cheese), and Bosanski Lonac (a stew with made with a variety of vegetables and meat.) A variety of desserts are common in Bosnia and Herzegovina, such as cakes, pastries, and cookies.

    The picture is a picture of Cevapi, the national dish of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  • Sports

    The biggest sport-related event for Bosnia and Herzegovina was hosting the 1984 Olympics. They have also participated in the Olympic games, both summer and winter, since 1992. The most popular sport in the country is football, which increased in popularity after World War II. The second most popular sport in Bosnia and Herzegovina is most likely basketball, they have done well in it. Other common sports are boxing, chess, handball, and karate.

    The picture is a picture of the former Yugoslavia football team.

  • Culture

    The culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina is diverse and has been influenced by different groups throughout the years. Architecture is a key part of the Bosnia and Herzegovina culture. It is influenced by different periods, including the Medieval, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian periods. Stunning examples of architecture from these different times in history can be seen throughout the country. Other important elements of the culture of Bosnia and Herzegovina are literature, music, cinema, and visual arts. The biggest religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina is Islam, followed by Christianity.

    The picture is a picture of the National Library in Sarajevo.

    Bosnia and Herzegovina is a beautiful country with wonderful people.


    Download questions about the Bosnia and Herzegovina here: Bosnia and Herzegovina (answers are on this page)

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10 facts about Bosnia and Herzegovina

1. Bosnia and Herzegovina is nicknamed “The Heart-Shaped Land.”


2. Over 1 million people visit Bosnia and Herzegovina each year.


3. “Bosnia” comes from the Indo-European word for water.


4. The country exports metals, clothing, and wood products.


5. Bosnia and Herzegovina has the tenth highest coffee consumption in the world.


6. There are many land mines still Bosnia and Herzegovina, leftover from wars.


7. The Golden Lily is a national symbol of Bosnia and Herzegovina.


8. The life expectancy in Bosnia and Herzegovina is 77 years.


9. The currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the Marka.


10. It is home to the largest rain-forest in Europe.


Q&A Corner

1. Name a country that borders Bosnia and Herzegovina? +
2. What is the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina? +
3. What is the tallest mountain in Bosnia and Herzegovina? +
4. In what year did Bosnia and Herzegovina gain independence? +
5. What is the national dish of Bosnia and Herzegovina? +
6. Name a sport that is popular in Bosnia and Herzegovina? +
7. What is the main religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina? +
8. Name a famous person from Bosnia and Herzegovina? +
9. What is the longest river in Bosnia and Herzegovina? +
10. How many stars are on the flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina? +