Brief History

Egypt has a long and important history. Ancient Egypt was one of the most powerful and influential civilizations in North Africa. Early inhabitants of Egypt were farmers who also wove linen and made pottery. Evidence of phonetic writing in Egypt dates back to about 3250 BC. Throughout Ancient Egyptian history, the area was ruled by pharaohs and the people built pyramids. Christianity reached Alexandria by 70 AD and spread south by 180 AD. The spread of Christianity brought about the end of Ancient Egypt and began to replace its old religion and culture. In the 4th century, Egypt was a part of the Byzantine Empire. The Arabs conquered Egypt during the 7th century, and it became a part of the Islamic Empire ruled by Bagdhad. In 969, Egypt was conquered by the Fatimids of Tunisia. Egypt was then conquered by the Ayyubids, the Mamluks, and then the Ottoman Turks.

National Flag

The national flag of Egypt is a tricolor of red, white, and black bands. In the center of the flag is Egypt’s coat of arms. The red on Egypt’s flag represents the sacrifice of Egyptian martyrs, white symbolizes peace, and black stands for the dark period of the country’s occupation.


Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa. It borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, and Israel to the northeast. Southern Egypt is made up of low mountains and deserts. Northern Egypt has wide valleys near the Nile and more desert to the east and west.


World Land Mass Ranking: 30th


Highest Mountain: Mount Catherine, 2,629 m (8,625 ft)


Longest River:  Yaque del Norte River, 6,650 km (4,132 mi)

Main Languages

Arabic, Egyptian Arabic

Egypt Population: 102.3 million (as of 2020)

Capital City: Cairo

Capital City Population: 10 million (as of 2020)


Egypt’s climate is hot and dry. Without the Nile River, Egypt would be entirely desert. Egypt receives only about one inch of rain each year, but in the summer, the Nile rises due to rain at its source in Ethiopia. This results in flooding, which covers the river’s valleys and provides sediments needed for crops to grow.

Key People


Mohamed Salah



  • Cuisine

    Egyptian cuisine draws influence from Middle Eastern and Medeterrian cuisines. Common ingredients in Egyptian dishes include rice, bread, and figs. Fruit, vegetables, and legumes are grown in the Nile Valley and Delta. The most popular meats in Egypt are squab, chicken, and lamb, as well as seafood in coastal regions. Spices and herbs are common in Egyptian dishes, including cumin, cinnamon, cardamom, coriander, cloves, dill, and bay leaves. The national dish of Egypt is Kushari, which is a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni.

  • Sports

    Sports are an important part of Egyptian history and culture. Many sports played today were also played in Ancient Egyptian times, including wrestling, long jump, rowing, and swimming. Archery and javelin were also common activities, as well as hunting methods, in Ancient Egypt. Today, the most popular sport in Egypt is football.

  • Culture

    The culture of Egypt dates back thousands of years, to the times of the ancient Pharaohs. Egyptian literature dates back to the Old Kingdom, in the 3rd Millenium BC. Texts throughout Egyptian history tell stories, instructions, and the history of the country. The Royal Library of Alexandria was once the largest library in the world and contained up to 700,000 scrolls. Art is another important element of Egyptian culture, especially painting, sculpture, and architecture. Religion is also an important aspect of Egyptian culture, and approximately 90% of the population is Muslim.

10 facts about Egypt

1. Egypt is a transcontinental country .


2. Cats were considered to be sacred in Ancient Egypt.


3. Egypt’s main export is natural gas.


4. The Egyptians invented the 365-days a year calendar.


5. At least 118 Egyptian pyramids have been identified.


6. The national animal of Egypt is the eagle.


7. Cairo is the largest city in Africa.


8. Ancient Egyptians loved board games.


9. Egypt is home to 7 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


10. The Nile is the longest river in the world.


Q&A Corner

1. What colors make up the Egyptian flag? +
2. Name a key/famous Egyptian? +
3. What is the population of Egypt (as of 2020)? +
4. What percentage of Egypt’s population is Muslim? +
5. What is the longest river in Egypt? +
6. Name a sport that is popular in Egypt? +
7. What countries border Egypt? +
8. What are the main languages spoken in Egypt? +
9. What is the capital city of Egypt? +
10. What is the highest mountain in Egypt? +