Brief History

Humans were living in what is now Estonia beginning in 8500 BC, at the end of the last glacial period. Ancient Estonians worshipped spirits of nature. During the Middle Ages, Estonia became a battleground and was fought over by Denmark, Russia, Germany, Prussia, Sweden, and Poland. Estonia has been ruled by many different empires throughout history. Russia ruled Estonia from around 1720 to 1918, when they declared independence. However, Russia invaded Estonia the next day and the two countries fought until 1920, when Estonia was recognized as an independent nation. In 1940, Russia annexed Estonia and made it a part of the Soviet Union. In 1941, Estonia was under German occupation, until 1944, when Russia placed Estonia under communist rule yet again. Estonia gained independence from Russia on September 6, 1991. In 2005, Estonia joined the European Union.

National Flag

The national flag of Estonia is a tricolor, with three equal bands of blue, black, and white. The blue symbolizes faith, devotion, and the lakes and sea of Estonia. The black represents the tragic past of Estonia, and the white stands for purity and striving for enlightenment and virtue.


Estonia is located in northeastern Europe, bordering Russia, Latvia, and the Baltic sea. Estonia is a flat country with a long, shallow coastline. Over 1,500 islands in the Baltic sea are a part of Estonia. The country is home to rolling hills, forests, marshy lowlands, and sandy beaches.


World Land Mass Ranking: 132nd


Highest Mountain: Suur Munamägi, 318 m (1,043 ft)


Longest River: Võhandu, 162 km (101 mi)

Main Languages


Estonia Population: 1.3 million (as of 2020)

Capital City: Tallinn

Capital City Population: 446,000 (as of 2021)



Estonia has a temperate, mild climate. It has four seasons of near-equal length. Estonian spring is mild and dry, summer is warm with occasional thunderstorms, autumn is wet and windy, and winter is cold and snowy.

Key People

Arvo Pärt

Kelly Sildaru

Ilon Wikland


Louis Kahn

  • Cuisine

    The most common foods in Estonia are meat, potatoes, dairy products, and rye bread. Since Estonia is located by the Baltic Sea, seafood is also very common. Estonia’s national dish is verivorst, which is typically a winter meal and is made up of barley, onions, allspice, marjoram, and blood. Another common dish is kiluvõileib, which is an open-face rye bread sandwich topped with butter, boiled eggs, and pickled Baltic sprats. made from Some popular Estonian deserts are rhubarb pie, kringel, and martsipan.

  • Sports

    Sport is an important part of Estonian culture. Many sports are popular in Estonia, including basketball, beach volleyball, cricket, ice hockey, cycling, and football. Kiiking is a sport invented in Estonia, where players aim to pass over the spindle while swinging on a special swing. Estonians also enjoy Fencing and have won 17 World Fencing Championships.

  • Culture

    Estonia has had a distinct and beautiful culture for thousands of years. Music is an important aspect of Estonian culture, and folk songs accompanied by dances are very popular. The performing arts, such as theater and cinema, and visual arts and crafts are all important to the Estonian culture. Literature and architecture are also celebrated parts of Estonian culture.

10 facts about Estonia

1. Over 50% of Estonia is forested.


2. The population of Estonia is declining.


3. Estonia is a technologically advanced nation.


4. The euro is the official currency of Estonia.


5. Estonia does not accept dual citizenship.


6. Estonia is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites.


7. Estonia has some of the cleanest air in the world.


8. Public transportation in the capital Tallinn is free.


9. Estonia is one of the least religious nations in the world.


10. Estonia has a literacy rate of 99.8%.


Q&A Corner

1. When did Estonia gain its independence? +
2. What is the longest river in Estonia? +
3. What sport was invented in Estonia? +
4. Name a country that borders Estonia? +
5. How many distinct seasons are there in Estonia? +
6. Name a key/famous Estonian? +
7. What is the capital city of Estonia? +
8. What language do they speak in Estonia? +
9. What colors make up the Estonian flag? +
10. 10. Estonia has a literacy rate of 99.8% +