Brief History

Ethiopia is one of the oldest independent nations in Africa. It has been inhabited for many thousands of years. The D’mt kingdom rose to power in Ethiopia during 10 BC. Then in the first century AD, the Aksumite kingdom rose to power, and their capital, called Askum, became a major power on the Red Sea. In the earthy fourth century, Christianity was declared the state religion of what is now Ethiopia. As Islam spread across eastern Africa, the Askum empire lost power and became isolated. During the Middle Ages, Ethiopia flourished. During the 16th century, however, Ethiopia declined in power and struggled. In the late 19th century, all of Africa–except Ethiopia and Liberia–was divided up among different European countries. Ethiopia joined the League of Nations in 1923. In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia but was defeated in the Battle of Adwa. However, in 1974 Ethiopia was taken over by Communist rule. In the following years, Ethiopia faced much hardship. In 1991, the Communist regime was overthrown, and in 1995 Ethiopia became an independent nation.

National Flag

The first national flag of Ethiopia was adopted in 1897, but the current version was adopted in 1996. It is a tricolor made up of green, yellow, and red. The star in the center represents the unity of all Ethiopian nationalities.


Ethiopia is located in the horn of Africa, on the northeast coast of the continent. It borders six countries: Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Somalia. Ethiopia has a diverse landscape, with mountainous highlands, rainforests, plateaus, deep gorges, and river valleys.


World Land Mass Ranking: 27th


Highest Mountain: Ras Dashen, 4,620 m (15,160 ft)


Longest River: Blue Nile River, 1,450 km (900 mi)

Main Languages

Afar, Amharic, Oromo, Somali, and Tigrinya

Ethiopia Population: 115 million (as of 2020)

Capital City: Addis Ababa

Capital City Population: 5.2 million (as of 2022)


Like the landscape of Ethiopia, its climate is diverse. In the equatorial rainforest of Ethiopia, there is high rainfall and humidity. The country has an alpine climate in the mountains, and desert-like conditions in the north-east, east, and south-east lowlands.

Key People

Tirunesh Dibaba

Mulatu Astatke

Haile Selassie

Aster Aweke

  • Cuisine

    The foundation of most Ethiopian meals is a giant, spongey, pancake-like flatbread called injera. This serves as a base for a variety of other foods, and can also be used as a spoon by tearing off pieces to pick up food with. Many Ethiopian dishes are made up of meat, vegetables, and sauce. Ethiopian food is usually easoned with spices. A common seasoning is called berbere, which is a combination of 16 elements. Doro wat, which is a spicy chicken stew that includes whole hard-boiled eggs, is the national dish of Ethiopia.

  • Sports

    Many types of sports are popular in Ethiopia, but the country is most well-known for its runners. Ethiopian runners have achieved great success in both short and long-distance races. Football is a very popular sport in Ethiopia, and the national team is called the “Walyia Antelopes.” They won the Africa Cup of Nations in 1962. Besides running and football, basketball and traditional games are also popular sports.

  • Culture

    Ethiopians are known for being welcoming, friendly, and cooperative people. The culture of Ethiopia is diverse, and there are over 80 different ethnic groups in the country. However, “habesha” is the term used to describe the people and culture of Ethiopia and Eritrea, regardless of race or ethnicity. Religion is an important part of Ethiopian culture, and nearly half of the population belongs to the Ethiopian Orthodox Church.

10 facts about Ethiopia

1. Ethiopia is the birthplace of coffee.


2. Over 80 languages are spoken in Ethiopia.


3.Ethiopia is Africa’s oldest country.


4. Over half of Africa’s mountains are in Ethiopia.


5. Ethiopia has never been colonized.


6. Ethiopia has its own calendar system.


7. About 25 plant and animal species are endemic to Eswatini.


8. Eswatini is the only absolute monarchy in Africa.


9. The second-largest rock can be found in Eswatini.


10. Ethiopians celebrate their new year on September 11th.


Q&A Corner

1. What is the capital city of Ethiopia? +
2. Name a sport that is popular in Ethiopia? +
3. What is the tallest mountain in Ethiopia? +
4. Name a key/famous Ethiopian? +
5. What religion is most prominent in Ethiopia? +
6. What is the population of Ethiopia (as of 2020)? +
7. Name one of the main languages spoken in Ethiopia? +
8. When did Ethiopia become an independent nation? +
9. What is the longest river in Ethiopia? +
10. Name a food that is popular in Ethiopia? +