Brief History

Finland has been inhabited since about 9,000 B.C., during the end of the last glacial period. These earliest peoples were hunters and gatherers. During the Viking Age, Finland did not take part in exhibitions, but the inhabitants of the area traded and supplied furs. Due to the Northern Crusades, most of Finland became a part of the Kingdom of Sweden from the 13th century onwards. Swedish legal and social systems took root in Finland during this time. In the 1808-1809 war with Sweden, Russia conquered Finland and the area became a Grand Duchy of Russia. Finland did not participate in World War I, but nationalism influenced the region. In 1917, Finland declared independence from Russia. A few months later, a civil war between the Finnish Red Guards and the White Guards ensued. During World War II, Finland fought against the Soviet Union twice. Finland ended up ceding some land to the Soviet Union, but remained an independent democracy.

National Flag

Finland’s national flag is white with a blue Nordic cross. The blue color represents Finland’s many lakes and the sky. The white background symbolizes snow.


Finland is located in Scandanavia, which is a region in northern Europe. It borders Norway, Sweden, and Russia. Finland is mostly flat, although the Scandanavian mountains stretch into the northwestern part of the country. It is forested, with many lakes, and many thousands of islands dotting the coastline.


World Land Mass Ranking: 66th


Highest Mountain: Kovddoskaisi, 1,242 m (4,075 ft)


Longest River: Kemijoki, 550 km (340 mi)

Main Languages

Finnish, Swedish

Finland Population: 5.5 million (as of 2020)

Capital City: Helsinki

Capital City Population: 1.3 million (as of 2022)


The majority of Finland has a continental subarctic climate, while the southern coast experiences a humid continental climate. Finland has four distinct seasons. The weather in Finland is diverse and can change quickly.

Key People

Kimi Räikkönen

Jean Sibelius

Jarkko Nieminen

Eero Saarinen

  • Cuisine

    Finnish cuisine is based on tradition and uses local ingredients sourced from forests and lakes. Fish, meat, root vegetables, mushrooms, and grains are all common ingredients in Finnish dishes. Arctic wild berries can be found in Finland, and are eaten fresh in the summer and dried for colder months. Bread, porridges, and a variety of sweets and desserts are also common in Finnish cuisine.

  • Sports

    A wide variety of sports and activities can be found in Finland. Pesäpallo is the national game of Finland. It is a fast-moving bat and ball sport. The most popular sports in Finland, however, are ice hockey and football. Internationally, Finland primarily participates in winter sports like skiing, snowshoeing, and Nordic skating. The country has participated in the Olympics since 1908, and many Finnish athletes have brought home medals since then.

  • Culture

    Finnish culture is shaped by its rich history and draws influence from surrounding nations. Finland’s culture is based on principles of respect and interdependence. Finns are often perceived as quiet, reflective, and hard-working. Finns have a strong belief in the public welfare system. Gender equality is also important in Finland, and it is common for both parents to share household duties. Literature, visual arts, architecture, music, and cinema are all important parts of Finnish culture.

10 facts about Finland

1. Finland is ranked as the happiest country in the world.


2. The life expectancy in Finland is 82 years.


3.Finland is the only home of the endangered Saimaa Ringed Seal.


4.Heavy metal bands are very popular in Finland.


5. There are over two million saunas in Finland.


6. Finland has the world’s highest annual consumption of milk. .


7. The brown bear is Finland’s national animall.


8. Finland is known as the “land of many lakes.


9. Finns consume 12kg of coffee per person annually.


10. Finland has free education, even at the university level.


Q&A Corner

1. When did Finland declare independence from Russia? +
2. What is Finland’s national animal? +
3. Name a food that is popular in Finland? +
4. What is the capital city of Finland? +
5. How long have people inhabited Finland? +
6. What type of climate does Finland have? +
7. Name a key/famous Finn? +
8. What is the highest mountain in Finland? +
9. What colors make up the Finnish flag? +
10. What is the national sport of Finland? +