Brief History

After the last Ice Age—about 10,000 years ago—humans settled in northern Europe. Germanic-speaking tribes have been in the area that is now Germany for centuries. From 768 to 814, the area was a part of the Frankish empire under the rule of Charlemagne. The Kingdom of Germany became a part of the Holy Roman Empire from 962 to 1806. World War I began in 1914. In 1918, Germany and its allies lost World War I. After this war, there was a period of civil unrest, and the monarchy collapsed. Adolf Hitler rose to power and created the Nazi Party, which came to power in 1933. Hitler invaded Poland in 1939, starting World War II. The Nazi Party believed in the superiority of the German race. During World War II, Hitler created camps where millions of Jews and other people were murdered. This horrible time in history is called the Holocaust. World War II ended in 1945 with Germany’s defeat, and Germany was divided into two countries by the Berlin Wall: East Germany and West Germany. These nations became a central focus of the Cold War, which lasted for about 45 years.

National Flag

The national flag of Germany was adopted on May 23, 1949. It is a horizontal tricolor of black, red, and gold. These are the national colors of Germany and symbolize freedom and unity.


Germany is located in central Europe and shares its border with nine other countries. Germany also borders the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. Germany has a varied landscape, with rivers, forests, beaches, hills, mountains, lakes, and rivers.

World Land Mass Ranking: 63rd

Highest Mountain: Zugspitze, 2,962 m (9,718 ft)

Longest River: Danube River 2,850 km (1,770 mi)

Main Languages


Germany Population: 83.2 million (as of 2020)

Capital City: Berlin

Capital City Population: 3.6 million (as of 2022)


Germany has a temperate climate and four distinct seasons. Seasonal weather is subject to variations from year to year. However, summers are generally quite warm, and winters are cold. On average, Germany receives 787 mm of rain each year.

Key People

Martin Luther

Albrecht Dürer

Albert Einstein

Ludvig van Beethoven

  • Cuisine

    Germany shares some of its culinary traditions with other European nations, including Austria and Poland. German recipes focus heavily on bread, meat, potatoes, and vegetable greens. Sausage is very popular in Germany––especially bratwurst, which is made from pork, veal, or beef and various spices. Germany is also famous for its variety of desserts. Two of the most famous are apple strudel and black forest cake.

  • Sports

    The most popular sport in Germany is football (soccer). The German national football team has won the World Cup four times, in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014. Germany has also performed well in the Olympic games throughout the years and is currently ranked third in the all-time Olympic Games medal count. Other sports that are popular in Germany include basketball, ice hockey, motor racing, and handball.

  • Culture

    Germany has a long and rich history and plays a crucial role in Western culture. The arts are very important to Germans, including classical music, paintings, and architecture. The first printing press was made in Germany by Johaness Gutenberg, which allowed knowledge to be spread quickly. Literature, religion, and philosophy are other important aspects of German culture.

10 facts about Germany

  1. There are over 20,000 castles in Germany.
  2. Gummy bears are a German invention.
  3. Germany’s currency is the euro.
  4. The life expectancy in Germany is 81 years.
  5. The tradition of having a Christmas tree started in Germany.
  6. 65% of highways in Germany have no speed limit.
  7. One-third of Germany is forested.
  8. The first book ever printed was German.
  9. Eagles are the national animal of Germany.
  10. Germany has more zoos than any other country.

Q&A Corner

1. What is the tallest mountain in Germany? +
2. Name a country that borders Germany? +
3. What is the capital city of Germany? +
4. What three colors make up the German flag? +
5. How many times has Germany won the World Cup? +
6. When did Hitler invade Poland? +
7. Name a common German dessert? +
8. What is the longest river in Germany? +
9. Name a key/famous German? +
10. What is the most popular sport in Germany? +