Brief History

Thousands of years ago, the area that is now India was home to the Indus Valley civilization. The Indus Valley civilization is one of the oldest civilizations in human history, and they are known for their great cities called Harappa and Mohenjo Daro. Around 1500 BC, the Aryan people came to India from central Asia. From about 320 to 185 BC, the Mauryan Empire ruled over India. The Gupta Empire reigned for 200 years, starting in the fourth century AD. During this time, there were many developments in arts, crafts, and sciences. Muslims began invading India in the 700s. Years later, the Moghul Empire rose to power and ruled the land for over 300 years. In the late 1400s, European explorers arrived in India and set up trading companies. Britain gained control of most of the country by 1757. In 1885, the Indian National Congress was formed by Indians who wanted their own government. In 1920, Mahatma Gandhi began nonviolent protests against the British. After many years of struggle, India gained independence from Britain in 1947.

National Flag

The national flag of India is a horizontal tricolor of saffron, white, and green. The saffron color represents the strength and courage of India, the white represents peace and truth, and green stands for the fertility and growth of the land. The navy blue Ashoka Chakra in the center of the flag intends to show that there is life in movement and death in stagnation.


India is located in Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Most of India forms a peninsula and is surrounded by water on three sides. It is a large country with a diverse landscape. India has snow-capped mountains, deserts, hills, plains, islands, and jungles.

World Land Mass Ranking: 7th

Highest Mountain: Kangchenjunga, 8,586 m (28,169 ft)

Longest River: Ganges, 2,525 km (1,569 mi)

Main Languages

Hindi, English

Guyana Population: 1.4 billion (as of 2023)

Capital City: New Delhi

Capital City Population: 33 million (as of 2023


Due to its large size, India has a diverse climate with six major climate types. There are arid deserts in the west, alpine tundra and glaciers in the north, and humid tropical regions in the southwest.

Key People

Mahatma Gandhi

Virat Kohli

A. P. J. Abdul Kalam

Sundar Pichai

  • Cuisine

    Indian cuisine dates back thousands of years, and each region has its own variety of foods. The cuisine is also influenced by religion in India––Hindus are vegetarian, and Muslims don’t eat pork. Staple ingredients in Indian cooking include rice, tomatoes, lentils, potatoes, chickpeas, onions, and yogurt. Many spices are used to flavor Indian dishes, some of the most common are cumin, turmeric, cardamom, coriander, red chili powder, and saffron. Some famous Indian foods are curry, naan, tandoori chicken, and samosa. A popular dessert in India is sweet rice pudding.

  • Sports

    Sports are an important tradition in India. The British presence in India during the 18th and 19th centuries influenced sports Currently,  the most popular sport in India is cricket, followed by football and kabaddi. Many Indians still practice traditional sports and activities, including pehlwani, silambam, yoga, and thayam. Also, some of the oldest forms of martial arts originated in India like musti yuddha and kalerippayattu.

  • Culture

    India is the world’s most populated country, with over 1.4 billion inhabitants. Since it is a large country with many people, the culture of India is diverse. The main religions in India are Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, which all originated in India. These religions differ, but are all based on the concepts of dharma and karma. The variety of language, literature, performing arts, visual arts, clothing, and philosophy are all important aspects of Indian culture.

10 facts about India

1. Chess first appeared in India about the 6th century BC.

2. The Bengal tiger is India’s national animal.

3. Bollywood is the world’s largest producer of films.

4. India’s national currency is the Rupee.

5. Cows are considered sacred in India.

6. India is the world’s third-largest economy.

7. Most Indians eat with only their fingers.

8. The Hindu calendar has six seasons.

8. White tigers are only found in India.

10.India is divided into 29 states.

Q&A Corner

1. What is the highest mountain in India? +
2. Name a key/famous Indian? +
3. What is the climate of southern India like? +
4. What colors make up the Indian flag? +
5. What is the capital city of India? +
6. When did India gain independence from Britain? +
7. What is the most popular sport in India? +
8. Name a spice that is commonly used in Indian dishes? +
9. What is the longest river in India? +
10. What is the population of India (as of 2023)? +