Brief History

Indonesia has a rich history. The region has been inhabited by various indigenous groups for centuries, and over time, several powerful empires emerged, including the Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Mataram kingdoms. However, in the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company began to establish control over the region, and Indonesia would remain under colonial rule for the next 300 years. The struggle for independence from Dutch colonialism came to a head in the 20th century, with Sukarno emerging as a key figure in the fight for freedom. Sukarno was a charismatic and passionate leader who fought tirelessly for the rights of the Indonesian people, and his vision of an independent, united, and socialist Indonesia inspired a generation. In 1967, as part of a larger struggle during the Cold War, the United States supported a coup in Indonesia that led to Sukarno being ousted from power. Around one million communists and accused communist sympathizers were killed as part of this horrible conflict. Nevertheless, Sukarno remains an important figure in Indonesian history and a symbol of the country’s struggle for independence.

National Flag

The flag of Indonesia was introduced in 1945, after the proclamation of independence from the Dutch. Simple in design, the flag is made up of two equally-sized horizontal bands—red at the top and white at the bottom. The flag is similar to the flag of Monaco, the only difference being the specific shades of red.


Indonesia is a large country that spans two continents—Asia and Oceania. The world’s biggest archipelago state, Indonesia is made up of over 17,000 islands scattered across the equator. Indonesia borders Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, and multiple other Pacific countries.


Main Languages


Indonesia Population: 277,749,853 (as of 2022) 

Capital City: Jakarta

Capital City Population: 10,562,088 (as of 2021)

  • Cuisine

    Indonesian cuisine is a flavorful and diverse blend of influences from the country’s geography, history, and cultural diversity. A staple food is rice, served alongside an array of dishes that typically include meat, fish, vegetables, and spices. Notably, the dishes nasi padang, rendang, and gulai are particularly famous, with rendang being a slow-cooked beef dish in a spicy coconut milk sauce that is famous worldwide. Gulai is another popular dish that is similar to rendang, but often made with chicken, fish, or vegetables. Nasi padang is a popular dish from the Padang region of Sumatra, where a selection of various spicy dishes, including rendang and gulai, are served with rice. The use of spices such as coriander, cumin, turmeric, and lemongrass adds complexity and distinctive flavors to many dishes in Indonesian cuisine, which is an essential part of the country’s rich cultural heritage.

    Below is a picture of Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables.

  • Sports

    Indonesia has a rich sporting culture, with a variety of traditional and modern sports enjoyed by the people. Football is the most popular sport in the country, with a fervent following for the national team. Other popular modern sports include badminton, basketball, and volleyball. In addition to these modern sports, Indonesia also has a long history of traditional martial arts, with Pencak Silat being the most well-known. Pencak Silat is a dynamic and fluid martial art that emphasizes striking, grappling, and weaponry. It has a deep cultural significance and is often performed at cultural events and ceremonies, as well as in international competitions.

    Below is a picture demonstrating Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts.

  • Culture

    Indonesian culture is diverse and multifaceted, with a rich history shaped by influences from the region’s various ethnic groups, religions, and colonial past. One of the most distinctive cultural traditions in Indonesia is the unique architecture of the Tongkonan houses of the Toraja people in South Sulawesi. These traditional houses are built with a striking boat-shaped roof and intricate carvings, and they are used for a variety of purposes, including living quarters, community centers, and places of worship. Other cultural traditions include batik textiles, gamelan music, wayang shadow puppetry, and traditional dances such as the Balinese Legong and Javanese Kecak.

    Below is a picture of Tongkonan houses.

    Indonesia is a beautiful country with wonderful people.

10 facts about Indonesia

10 facts about Indonesia

1. Indonesia is home to over 100 endangered animals.

2. The world’s biggest flower is found in Indonesia.

3. Indonesia is home to over 700 different languages.

4. Puncak Jaya is the tallest island peak on earth.

5. Indonesia has the second longest coastline in the world.

6. Indonesia is made up of 17,504 islands.

7. Komodo dragons are native to Indonesia.

8. The flag of Poland looks like the flag of Indonesia upside down.

9. Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world.

10. There are over 100 volcanoes in Indonesia.

Q&A Corner

1. What is the capital city of Indonesia? +
2. What is the official language of Indonesia? +
3. What is the population of Indonesia? +
4. What is the climate like in Indonesia? +
5. Which two continents does Indonesia span? +
6. Name a key/famous citizen of Indonesia? +
7. What is the tallest mountain in Indonesia? +
8. Who was Sukarno? +
9. What is the capital of Indonesia? +
10. When did Indonesia gain its independence from the Dutch? +