Brief History

Iran, also known as Persia, has a rich history that dates back over 2,500 years. Iran has been home to several great empires, including the Achaemenid, Parthian, and Sassanid empires. Throughout its history, Iran has made significant contributions to art, science, and culture. However, in the 20th century, Iran experienced significant political turmoil and underwent a revolution in 1979 that saw the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of an Islamic Republic. The revolution was led by a coalition of forces, including leftists, Islamists, and nationalists, who were united in their opposition to the Shah’s regime. The revolution culminated in February 1979 when the Shah was forced to flee Iran, and an Islamic Republic was established under the leadership of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. The new government was based on Islamic principles and aimed to establish a more just and equitable society. The revolution was widely popular among the Iranian people, who saw it as an opportunity to achieve greater freedom and prosperity. But the revolution also led to tensions with foreign powers, particularly the United States, which had supported the Shah’s regime. Despite these challenges, Iranians look forward to a better future.

National Flag

The Iranian flag in its current form has been in use since 1980, instituted after the Iranian revolution. Green represents the Islamic faith, white represents peace, and red symbolizes courage. The emblem at the center of the flag is rich in symbolism, signifying the written name of Allah, the five pillars of Islam, and curved swords.


Iran lies near the center of what is often referred to as the Middle East, a large area in western Asia. Bordering Iraq and Turkey to the west and Afghanistan, Pakistan and Turkmenistan to the east, Iran makes up a mountainous and seismically active region of Western Asia.


World Land Mass Ranking: 18th


Highest Mountain: Mount Damavand, 5,671 m (18,606 ft)


Longest River: Karun, 950 km (590 mi) long

Main Languages


Iran Population: 86,758,304 (as of 2022)

Capital City: Tehran

Capital City Population: 9,400,000 (as of 2018)


Iran’s climate is diverse, ranging from arid desert plains to cold and wet mountain ranges. Subtropical forests lie along the northern area bordering the Caspian sea, and areas of the Zagros basin experience lower temperatures and heavy snowfall.

Key People

Ali Khamenei


Marjane Satrapi


Qasem Soleimani


Ebrahim Raisi

  • Cuisine

    Iranian cuisine is rich and diverse, with a long history and a variety of influences. Iranian cuisine is known for its use of herbs, spices, and a wide range of flavorful ingredients. One of the most popular Iranian dishes is chelow kebab, which consists of grilled meat served with a side of rice, often seasoned with saffron. The meat can be lamb, beef, or chicken, and is typically marinated in a mixture of spices and yogurt before grilling. Chelow Kebab is often accompanied by grilled tomatoes and onions, as well as fresh herbs such as parsley and mint. Iranian cuisine also includes a variety of stews, such as Gheymeh and Fesenjan, as well as a wide range of vegetarian dishes.

  • Sports

    Football is the most popular sport in Iran, with a strong domestic league and a national team that has qualified for several World Cup tournaments. Wrestling is also a popular sport in Iran, with a long history that dates back to ancient times. Iran has produced several Olympic medalists in wrestling and has won the world championships multiple times. Other popular sports in Iran include volleyball, basketball, and weightlifting. Iran also has a strong tradition of martial arts, including the ancient Persian martial art of Zurkhaneh, which combines strength training, calisthenics, and rhythmic movements.

  • Culture

    Iran has a diverse and fascinating culture that is evident in its art, music, literature, architecture, and cuisine. Iranian art features intricate designs and vibrant colors, while Iranian music includes classical, folk, and pop genres. Iranian literature includes works by famous poets such as Rumi, Hafez, and Ferdowsi. Iranian architecture is notable for its historic landmarks, including ancient ruins and Islamic mosques. Iranian cuisine is renowned for its use of herbs and spices. Iranian culture is deeply rooted in its traditions and customs, such as the celebration of Persian New Year (Nowruz) and the practice of hospitality (mehman-nawazi).

10 facts about Iran

1.Iran uses its own calendar.
2.Thursday and Friday make up the Iranian weekend.
3.A thumbs-up is a very rude gesture in Iran.
4.Iran has 24 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
5.Iranian carpets are famous all over the world.
6.Iran is the fifth-biggest petroleum producer.
7.Iran is the global epicenter of Shia Islam.
8.Iran is not an Arab country.
9.There are multiple major mountain ranges in Iran.
10.Iran has been accused of creating nuclear weapons.

Q&A Corner

1. When was the Iranian revolution? +
2. What is the dominant religion of Iran? +
3. What is the emblem on the Iranian flag? +
4. What is the climate like in Iran? +
5. What continent is Iran on? +
6. Are most Iranians Shia or Sunni Mu? +
7. What is the tallest mountain in Iran? +
8. What is chelow kebab? +
9. What is the capital of Iran? +
10. Who ruled Iran after the Shah? +