Brief History

Iraq has a long and complex history dating back to ancient civilizations such as the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. In the 7th century, Islam spread to the region, and the Arab Muslim conquests led to the establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate in Baghdad in 762. The Mongol invasion in the 13th century devastated the region, and Iraq became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. During World War I, the British occupied Iraq, which became a League of Nations mandate in 1920. In 1932, Iraq gained independence and became a monarchy under King Faisal I. The monarchy was overthrown in a military coup in 1958, and the country became a republic. In 1979, Saddam Hussein became the president of Iraq and initiated a period of political repression and military aggression. Iraq invaded Iran in 1980, leading to a long and devastating war that ended in 1988. In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait, which led to the Gulf War and the imposition of economic sanctions. In 2003, the United States and its allies invaded Iraq, falsely alleging that Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction. The war led to the overthrow of Saddam Hussein’s regime and the establishment of a new government. However, Iraq has since faced sectarian violence, insurgency, and political instability. Today, Iraq is a federal parliamentary republic, but it continues to face significant challenges, including sectarian tensions, corruption, and the ongoing threat of terrorism.

National Flag

The basic format of the current flag of the Republic of Iraq has been in use since 1963, but the most recent version was made official in 2008. The flag consists of three horizontal bands in red, white, and black—the colors of Arab liberation. At the center of the flag, “God is the Greatest” is written in Arabic.


Iraq lies at the center of what is often referred to as the Middle East, a large area in western Asia. Centered between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the plains are rich and fertile, but northern regions—bordering the Syrian desert—are hot and dry. The landscape is rich and diverse.


World Land Mass Ranking: 59th


Highest Mountain: Cheekha Dar, 3,611 m (11,847 ft)


Longest River: Euphrates, 3,520 m (11,550 ft)

Main Languages

Arabic, Kurdish

Iraq Population: 40,462,701 (as of 2022)


Capital City: Baghdad


Capital City Population: 8,126,755 (as of 2018)


Much of Iraq has a hot arid climate, but there are large areas with subtropical influence where it can be wetter. The northern mountainous regions have cold winters with occasional heavy snows, which can sometimes result in flooding.

Key People

Saddam Hussein


Sargon of Akkad


Nadia Murad


Najiba Ahmad

  • Cuisine

    Iraqi cuisine is a blend of diverse cultural influences, including Persian, Turkish, and Arab cuisine. It is known for its aromatic spices, herbs, and sauces, such as sumac, saffron, and pomegranate molasses. Rice, lamb, and chicken are common staples, as well as vegetables like eggplant and okra. One of the most famous and traditional dishes is masgouf, a grilled fish dish marinated with spices and served with lemon and flatbread. Other popular dishes include kebabs, biryani, dolma (stuffed vegetables), and tashreeb (meat and vegetable stew served with bread). Iraqi sweets, such as baklava, qatayef (stuffed pancakes), and halwa (sweetened sesame paste), are also enjoyed. Tea is a staple beverage, often served with dates or other sweets.

  • Sports

    Sports are an essential part of Iraqi culture, with football (soccer) being the most popular sport in the country. Other popular sports in Iraq include basketball, weightlifting, boxing, and wrestling. The country has also seen a growing interest in traditional sports such as horse racing and camel racing. Despite the challenges of conflict and economic hardship, Iraqi athletes have continued to participate in international competitions, including the Olympics, and have achieved notable successes in various sports.

  • Culture

    Iraq’s culture is reflected in its art, literature, music, and architecture. Traditional forms of art, such as calligraphy and ceramics, continue to be practiced, while modern art is also emerging in urban centers. Iraqi cuisine, as mentioned before, is a blend of various cultural influences. Additionally, Iraq has several important archaeological sites, including the Shanidar Cave, which has provided important evidence of Neanderthal culture and the evolution of human behavior. The country has produced some of the world’s most significant contributions to art, science, and literature

10 facts about Iraq

1.Iraq means fertile.
2.Iraq is home to the world’s oldest civilisation.
3.A drought uncovered a bronze age city.
4.Iraq gave us our oldest writing system, cuneiform.
5.The people of Iraq are very hospitable.
6.Baghdad Used To Have Many Underground Tunnels.
7.Six Countries Share A Border With Iraq.
8.Iraq is home to six UNESCO heritage sites.
9.Most Of The Population In Iraq Is Muslim.
10.The Epic of Gilgamesh came from Iraq.

Q&A Corner

1. When did Iraq become independent from the British +
2. What is the dominant religion of Iraq? +
3. What are the words on the Iraqi flag? +
4. What is the climate like in Iraq? +
5. What continent is Iraq on? +
6. Name a key/famous citizen of Iraq? +
7. What is the tallest mountain in Iraq? +
8. What is masgouf? +
9. What is the capital of Iraq? +
10. How long have people been living in Iraq? +