Brief History

Italy has a long and complicated history. Around 1200 B.C., the first societies emerged in Italy. At about 800 B.C., the Etruscans settled in central Italy, while the Greeks arose in the south. The Romans began to take over Etruscan territory, and by 265 B.C., the last Etruscan city fell to the Romans. The Romans went on to conquer the whole peninsula and build a vast empire. The Roman Empire had a large influence on the modern world, which can be seen in architecture, law, art, and philosophy. After the division of the Roman Empire, corruption, and the invasion of Germanic tribes, the Roman Empire collapsed. For the next several hundred years, Italy was made up of small city-states. In 1861, the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed. After World War I, Benito Mussolini rose to power in Italy. He ruled as a fascist dictator, and Italy joined forces with Germany and Japan during World War II. After the war, Mussolini was captured and executed. Italy became a republic in 1946.

National Flag

The national flag of Italy features three equally-sized vertical stripes of green, white, and red. Green represents the country’s plains and hills, white represents the snow of the Alps, and red represents the blood spilled during the formation of the nation.


Italy is a boot-shaped peninsula located in southern Europe. It shares land borders with four countries, as well as the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a diverse, scenic landscape that includes tall mountains, valleys, glacial lakes, and miles of beaches.


World Land Mass Ranking: 73rd

Highest Mountain: Mont Blanc, 4,087 m (15,773 ft)

Longest River: Po, 652 km (405 mi)

Main Languages


Guyana Population: 60 million (as of 2023)


Capital City: Rome


Capital City Population: 4.3 million (as of 2023)


The climate in Italy is diverse and varies from region to region. Most of the country has a Mediterranean climate with warm, dry summers and mild winters. Northern Italy has cold, snowy winters and relatively warm summers.

Key People

Leonardo da Vinci
Giuseppe Verdi

Galileo Galilei
Dante Alighieri

  • Cuisine

    Italian cuisine is world-famous and diverse. There are 20 different regions in Italy, and each has its own distinct recipes, flavors, and ingredients. Some common Italian foods are pasta, fish, fruits, vegetables, cheese, and wine. Pizza is a national symbol of Italy and an important part of its cuisine. Some other famous Italian dishes are lasagna, focaccia, risotto, and gnocchi. Common Italian desserts include gelato, tiramisu, and cannoli.

  • Sports

    Sports play an important role in Italian culture and society. The most popular sport in Italy is football. Italy’s national football team is considered one of the best worldwide and has won the FIFA World Cup four times, in 1934, 1938, 1982, and 2006. Other popular sports in Italy include basketball, rugby,  volleyball, and a variety of water sports.

  • Culture

    Italian culture traces its roots back to the ancient world and has been very influential until today. Visual art is an important part of Italian culture. Many famous artists, like Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Caravaggio, were Italian. Opera began in Italy during the Renaissance, and it is still a big part of Italian culture. Other important elements of Italian culture include literature, fashion, philosophy, science, technology, and architecture.

10 facts about Italy

1.The piano was invented in Italy.
2.There are three active volcanoes in Italy.
3.The euro is Italy’s national currency.
4.Italy is home to 53 UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
5.Over 90% of Italians are Roman Catholic.
6.Italy is the fifth most visited country in the world.
7.Over 75% of Italy is mountainous.
8.The Italian wolf is Italy’s national animal.
9.Italy imports over 75% of its energy.
10.The oldest university in the world is in Italy.

Q&A Corner

1. Name a food that is popular in Italy? +
2. What colors make up the Italian flag? +
3. When did Italy become a republic? +
4. What is the capital city of Italy? +
5. Name a sport that is popular in Italy? +
6. Where is Italy located? +
7. What is the tallest mountain in Italy? +
8. What is the population of Italy (as of 2023)? +
9. Name a key/famous Italian? +
10. What is the longest river in Italy? +