Brief History

Kazakhstan, a vast Central Asian nation, has a rich and diverse history that spans thousands of years. The region has been inhabited since ancient times, with nomadic tribes and sedentary civilizations flourishing along the Silk Road trade route. In the 13th century, the Mongol Empire brought its influence to the area, followed by the Kazakh Khanate’s establishment in the 15th century, marking the rise of a distinct Kazakh identity. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Kazakhstan experienced colonization by the Russian Empire, leading to a gradual integration into the Russian-controlled territories. In 1920, the Soviets extended their influence into the territory, heralding an era of industrialization, modernization, and societal transformation. Under Soviet leadership, Kazakhstan witnessed rapid economic development, with the establishment of collective farms, the exploration and extraction of valuable natural resources, and the construction of key infrastructure projects. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Kazakhstan emerged as an independent nation. Today, Kazakhstan is known for its rich cultural heritage, vibrant traditions, and ambitious plans for development and global engagement.

National Flag

The flag of Kazakhstan was introduced in 1992, designed to replace the flag of the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic. It depicts a golden sun resting above a soaring eagle on a turquoise background. Turquoise is a color rich in symbolism for the Turkic peoples of Kazakhstan. On the left, the flag contains an ornamental pattern called “koshkar-muiz” (the horns of the ram).


Kazakhstan is the largest landlocked country in the world, with a diverse array of landforms and biomes. The grassy steppe extends across much of Kazakhstan, and the country is home to many valuable natural resources.


World Land Mass Ranking: 9th


Highest Mountain: Khan Tengri, 7,010 m (22,999 ft)


Longest River: Irtysh, 4,248 km (2,640 mi)

Main Languages

Kazakh, Russian

Kazakhstan Population: 19,398,331 (as of 2022)

Capital City: Astana

Capital City Population: 1,350,228 (as of 2022)


Because Kazakhstan is landlocked and high in elevation, the country has an extreme climate. Hot summers are followed by extremely cold winters, and Astana is the second coldest capital city in the world. Most of the country is arid, receiving little rainfall.

Key People

Shaken Aimanov


Nursultan Nazarbayev




Kassym-Jomart Tokayev

  • Cuisine

    Kazakh cuisine is a delicious blend of flavors inspired by the nation’s nomadic heritage, so don’t be surprised to see how often horse meat shows up in their cookbooks. Known for its hearty and meat-centric dishes, horse meat holds a special place in Kazakh cuisine. Traditional favorites like “beshbarmak” feature tender boiled meat served over flat noodles, often made with horse meat. Grilled skewered meat, known as “shashlik,” and cured horse sausage called “kazy” are also popular. Kazakhstan’s culinary delights extend to dairy products like fermented mare’s milk known as “kumis” and refreshing yogurt-based drinks like “ayran.” With an emphasis on local ingredients and warm hospitality, Kazakh cuisine offers a unique and flavorful experience.

  • Sports

    Kazakh sports encompass a wide range of traditional and modern activities that reflect the nation’s rich cultural heritage and its passion for athletic prowess. Traditional sports such as kokpar (a horseback game similar to polo), kuresh (a form of wrestling), and camel racing showcase Kazakhstan’s nomadic traditions and equestrian heritage. Additionally, Kazakhstan has excelled in Olympic sports, with a particular focus on wrestling, weightlifting, and boxing, earning numerous medals on the international stage. Ice hockey and skiing are also popular winter sports, while football (soccer) enjoys a significant following. Kazakhstan takes great pride in its sports achievements, fostering a strong sense of national unity and inspiring the younger generation to pursue active and healthy lifestyles.

  • Culture

    Kazakh culture is a vibrant fusion of nomadic, Turkic, Persian, and Islamic influences. Music, traditional clothing, and warm hospitality are integral parts of Kazakh traditions. Hospitality is highly valued, and guests are warmly welcomed with generous feasts and traditional rituals. Islam is an integral part of Kazakh culture, and religious festivals are celebrated with great fervor. The Mausoleum to Koja Ahmad Yassaui in Turkistan holds religious and architectural significance, representing the country’s deep-rooted Islamic heritage. Kazakh culture is a captivating blend of tradition and modern influences that showcases the pride and diversity of its people.

10 facts about Kazakhstan

1. Kazakhstan is home to about 120 ethnic groups.

2. Horses were first domesticated in Kazakhstan.

3. The first satellite was launched from Kazakhstan.

4. Lake Balkhash contains both fresh and salt water.

5. Kazakh means “wanderer” or “independent”.

6. The Kazakhstan/Russia land border is the world’s longest.

7. Kazakhstan is home to five UNESCO world heritage sites.

8. Kazakhstan’s national drink is horse milk.

9. Kazakhstan is the fourth most populous country in the world.

10. There are wild apple trees in Kazakhstan.

Q&A Corner

1. When was Kazakhstan’s flag introduced? +
2. What is the official language of Kazakhstan? +
3. What is the population of Kazakhstan? +
4. What is the climate like in Kazakhstan? +
5. Which continent does Kazakhstan span? +
6. Name a key/famous citizen of Kazakhstan? +
7. What is the tallest mountain in Kazakhstan? +
8. What is the capital city of Kazakhstan? +
9. What kind of food do they eat in Kazakhstan? +
10. Name a sport popular in Kazakhstan? +