Brief History

Located in Central Asia, Kyrgyzstan has a diverse and fascinating history that stretches back thousands of years. For thousands of years, the region was inhabited by various nomadic tribes and empires, such as the Scythians and Mongols, who left their mark on the land. In the 19th century, Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian Empire, bringing significant changes to the region. The Kyrgyz peoples were oppressed by the tsarist expansion projects. Following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Kyrgyzstan experienced a period of political upheaval before becoming a Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936. During the Soviet era, Kyrgyzstan underwent industrialization, modernization, and improvements in healthcare and education. The Soviet influence also contributed to the growth of cities, the introduction of collective farming, and the advancement of cultural and literary movements. Kyrgyzstan gained independence in 1991 with the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Since then, the country has worked towards economic development in the face of great challenges  while preserving its unique cultural heritage and natural beauty. Today, Kyrgyzstan continues to embrace its past while striving for a prosperous future.

National Flag

The flag of Kyrgyzstan was introduced in 1992, designed to replace the flag of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. It depicts a golden sun against a red background. The center of the sun contains a tunduk, the crossed lathes at the top of a yurt. Yurts are the traditional dwelling of the Kyrgyz people. The red signifies the red flag of Manas, a folk hero.


Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country—farther from the ocean than any other country on earth. Its rivers form a closed drainage system and do not reach the sea. The majority of the country is mountainous, with valleys and basins making up the rest of the landscape.

World Land Mass Ranking: 87th

Highest Mountain: Jengish Chokusu, 7,439 m (24,406 ft)

Longest River: Amu Darya, 2,400 km (1,500 mi)

Main Languages

Kyrgyz, Russian

Kyrgyzstan Population: 7,000,000 (as of 2022)

Capital City: Bishkek

Capital City Population: 1,074,075 (as of 2021)


Kyrgyzstan has an extreme climate. Because Kyrgyzstan is landlocked and high in elevation, valleys can reach subtropical high temperatures while mountains are cold and polar. Large glaciers cover many of the cold and icy mountains.

Key People

Chinghiz Aitmatov

Roza Otunbayeva

Salizhan Sharipov

Toktogul Satylganov

  • Cuisine

    Kyrgyz cuisine offers a delightful blend of flavors, influenced by the region’s nomadic heritage and the culinary traditions of Central Asia. Meat holds a prominent place in Kyrgyz dishes, with lamb and beef being popular choices. One iconic dish is “beshbarmak,” a hearty meat stew served over thin noodles. Another staple is “Manti,” steamed dumplings filled with seasoned meat. Dairy products also play a significant role, with Kumis (fermented mare’s milk) and Airan (yogurt) being widely consumed. Bread, particularly the round and crispy “lepyoshka,” accompanies meals. Kyrgyzstan’s cuisine features an array of aromatic herbs and spices, enhancing flavors. Additionally, the country is known for its diverse tea culture, with “Kymyz” (fermented camel’s milk) and herbal teas being enjoyed by locals and visitors alike. Kyrgyz cuisine is a delicious reflection of its nomadic roots.

  • Sports

    Kyrgyzstan embraces a diverse range of sports that reflect its cultural heritage and natural surroundings. Traditional sports like Kok-Boru and Er Enish showcase the nomadic traditions of horse-mounted competitions and wrestling. Wrestling, both traditional and freestyle, remains popular among athletes who compete in national and international events. The country also excels in combat sports such as boxing and martial arts, with Kyrgyz athletes achieving notable success at the global level. Football (soccer) enjoys a significant following, with local teams and national competitions capturing the attention of fans. Additionally, Kyrgyzstan’s mountainous terrain has nurtured a love for outdoor activities, including mountaineering, trekking, and skiing, attracting adventure enthusiasts from around the world. Kyrgyz sports offer a captivating blend of tradition, physical prowess, and a deep connection to the country’s cultural and natural heritage.

  • Culture

    Kyrgyz culture is a tapestry woven with traditions, hospitality, and a strong sense of community. Influenced by its nomadic heritage, the Kyrgyz people hold deep respect for nature and a nomadic way of life. Traditional music, such as the soulful melodies of the komuz (a three-stringed instrument), and the vibrant art of felt-making showcase the artistic expressions of the culture. The Kyrgyz people are known for their warm hospitality, treating guests with generosity and respect. The yurt, a portable dwelling, symbolizes the nomadic roots and is still used for special occasions and celebrations. Festivals like Nowruz and Kurman Ait highlight the cultural diversity and offer glimpses into ancient customs and rituals. Family bonds and community cohesion are valued, with social gatherings, storytelling, and shared meals playing an integral role in daily life. Kyrgyz culture embodies a deep appreciation for heritage, nature, and the bonds that tie people together.

10 facts about Kyrgyzstan

1. Kyrgyzstan has been called the Switzerland of Asia.
2. The longest poems in history come from Kyrgyzstan.
3. Kyrgyzstan is one of the least-crowded countries in the world.
4. Kyrgyzstan has one of the shortest rail networks in the world.
5. Yurts are still widely used in Kyrgyzstan
6. The largest walnut forest in the world is in Kyrgyzstan.
7. In Kyrgyzstan, people still hunt using eagles.
8. Kyrgyzstan’s national drink is horse milk.
9. There are 11 national parks in Kyrgyzstan.
10. 90% of the population of Kyrgyzstan are Sunni Muslims.

Q&A Corner

1. What is the population of Bishkek? +
2. What is a yurt? +
3. What is beshbarmak made of? +
4. What is the climate like in Kyrgyzstan? +
5. Does Kyrgyzstan border the ocean? +
6. Name a key/famous citizen of Kyrgyzstan? +
7. What is the tallest mountain in Kyrgyzstan? +
8. How many national parks are in Kyrgyzstan? +
9. What is the emblem on the flag of Kyrgyzstan? +
10. Name one development brought by the soviets? +